This page explains the concept of renderers, how to configure them and which renderers Magnolia provides out of the box.


A renderer produces output such as HTML or text based on the template definition, the template script and JCR content.

In summary, a renderer does the following things:

The SPA renderer uses different techniques to render a page.

The rendering process is executed by info.magnolia.rendering.engine.RenderingFilter. The result of the renderer is written to ServletOutputStream and sent to the browser. For further details, see Rendering content.

Magnolia provides the following renderers out of the box:

  • info.magnolia.rendering.renderer.FreemarkerRenderer



You can also implement your own custom renderer. To use a renderer, you must configure it either using YAML or in the JCR configuration workspace.

Configuring a renderer

To make a renderer available, you must configure it in the renderers folder of any module either using YAML, or in the JCR configuration workspace.

Once configured, you can:

  • Decorate the renderer definition.

  • Reuse the renderer definition as a base for a new renderer using YAML inherit.

  • Use the YAML include directive if the definition is YAML-based.

View your renderer definitions in the Definitions app.

Definition app render

class: info.magnolia.rendering.renderer.FreemarkerRenderer
    componentClass: info.magnolia.templating.freemarker.Directives
    name: cms
    componentClass: info.magnolia.templating.functions.TemplatingFunctions
    name: cmsfn
Property Description


The name of the renderer. In JCR it is the node name, in YAML it is the file name.

The renderer name is used to reference a renderer within a template definition.

title: test-page
templateScript: /test-custom-renderers/templates/pages/test-page.ftl
renderType: foobar
Property Description


Fully qualified class name. Must implement the info.magnolia.rendering.renderer.Renderer interface.


A map to register components that are injected into the rendering context. The components can be used within the template scripts with their given names.


The fully qualified class name of the context attribute component.


The name of the component to add to the context. Use this name to reference the component in a template script.

Renderers provided by Magnolia

Magnolia provides a number of renderers out-of-the-box.

Use the default Magnolia renderers as a base. Extend them to define your own new renderers using YAML inherit or similar techniques to reuse the configuration.

Renderer Provided by the module Configuration

FreeMarker renderer



Site-aware renderer for FreeMarker



SPA renderer



Note that magnolia-rendering is available in every preconfigured Magnolia bundle or webapp, whereas magnolia-site is available in every preconfigured Magnolia bundle or webapp except magnolia-empty-webapp.

FreeMarker renderer

The FreeMarker renderer is used to render pages relying on templates with FreeMarker-based template scripts. The FreeMarker renderer can be considered as the standard Magnolia renderer. It is also the base for the #_site_aware_renderers.

The implementation class is info.magnolia.rendering.renderer.FreemarkerRenderer.

  class: info.magnolia.rendering.renderer.FreemarkerRenderer
      componentClass: info.magnolia.templating.freemarker.Directives
      name: cms
      componentClass: info.magnolia.templating.functions.TemplatingFunctions
      name: cmsfn
      componentClass: info.magnolia.imaging.functions.ImagingTemplatingFunctions
      name: imgfn
      componentClass: info.magnolia.unfurl.functions.PeekFunctions
      name: peekfn
      componentClass: info.magnolia.modules.resources.templating.ResourcesTemplatingFunctions
      name: resfn
      name: sitefn
      componentClass: info.magnolia.dam.templating.functions.DamTemplatingFunctions
      name: damfn
      name: restfn
      componentClass: info.magnolia.ecommerce.templating.EcommerceTemplatingFunctions
      componentClass: info.magnolia.templating.functions.SearchTemplatingFunctions
      name: searchfn
      componentClass: info.magnolia.templating.functions.NavigationTemplatingFunctions
      name: navfn
      componentClass: info.magnolia.module.categorization.functions.CategorizationTemplatingFunctions
      name: catfn
      name: tourfn

Some parts of the configuration are added by modules which provide components registered in contextAttributes.

FreeMarker exception handling

FreeMarker exceptions render differently on the author and public instances. On author, FreeMarker exceptions show the stack trace in a yellow block with red text, and on public errors are hidden and logged.

This behavior is controlled by info.magnolia.freemarker.ModeDependentTemplateExceptionHandler registered in /server/rendering/freemarker/templateExceptionHandler. You can extend this class to fine-tune behavior.

FreeMarker security

Magnolia extends FreeMarker’s DefaultMemberAccessPolicy with a configurable list of blacklisted classes. If you want to add more classes to the default configuration, import this YAML bootstrap file into configuration:/server/rendering/freemarker/ and add your entries.

Default configuration
  'class': 'info.magnolia.freemarker.models.ClassBlacklistMemberAccessPolicy'
      'className': 'javax.servlet.ServletContext'
      'className': ''
      'className': 'javax.jcr.Repository'
      'className': ''
      'className': 'org.apache.jackrabbit.core.RepositoryContext'
      'className': 'org.apache.jackrabbit.core.fs.FileSystemFactory'
      'className': ''
      'className': 'org.apache.jackrabbit.core.query.QueryHandlerFactory'
      'className': 'org.apache.jackrabbit.core.util.db.ConnectionFactory'
      'className': 'javax.servlet.http.HttpSessionBindingListener'

You can also implement your own freemarker.ext.beans.MemberAccessPolicy.

Site-aware renderers

A site-aware renderer resolves the site definition related to the given request and merges the template definition of the requested page with the template prototype from the site definition.

The Site module adds the sitefn context attribute to the freemarker renderer configuration and configures the site renderer in /modules/site/renderers. Site-aware renderers are implemented by the class. It is a wrapper that relies on another already existing renderer. It comes with the property wrappedRendererType, which must be configured. The value of this property is the name of the wrapped renderer.

  wrappedRendererType: freemarker

SPA renderer

The SPA (Single-Page Application) renderer produces template annotations, which the Pages app transforms into the green toolbars – editable page elements.

The implementation class is

Rendering single-page applications (SPA)

Currently, the following functionalities aren’t supported in SPA rendering:

JavaScript renderers

Two additional JavaScript libraries are provided by Magnolia to help render SPA pages in the Angular and ReactJS front-end frameworks.

npm package names README files






The renderers described above are the most frequently used Magnolia renderers and cater to many use cases.

The following renderers are used for special cases.


The renderer for definitions without template scripts. Renders ContentMaps from components or component attribute from contextObjects.


Template renderer for plain text.


Streams the binary data stored in the content or loads it from an arbitrary path.

Creating a custom renderer

To create your own renderer, extend info.magnolia.rendering.renderer.AbstractRenderer. This convenience class supports typical functionality such as setting context attributes and executing a rendering model. It sets up the context by providing the following objects:

  • content

  • def

  • state

  • model

  • actionResult

See mustache-rendering for a detailed example.

DX Core



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Magnolia 6.3 beta

Magnolia 6.3 is in beta. We are updating docs based on development and feedback. Consider the 6.3 docs currently in a state of progress and not final.

We are working on some 6.3-beta known issues during this phase.